Veolia Environmental is a French transnational water, waste, transportation, and energy-management company. Veolia provides sustainable solutions worldwide, operating in over forty countries. The French government’s state-backed bank, Caisse des Dépôts, owns 4.6 percent of Veolia. Caisse des Dépôts also maintains one permanent director on Veolia’s Board of Directors. Caisse des Dépôts,an institution controlled by the French Parliament whose chief executive is appointed by the president of France, is very actively involved in Veolia Group companies. In December 2016, Veolia withdrew from Transdev (Veolia Transport) in favor of Caisse des Dépôts. Caisse des Dépôts is also closely supervised by French administrative and judiciary bodies.
As part of Veolia’sglobal operations, beginning in 2010, it designed and built a large reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Laayoune, the largest city in Morocco’s occupied territory. The plant was commissioned by Morocco’s National Office of Drinking Water “to support Morocco’s growing water needs.” Veolia openly notes the Laayoune plant on its global achievements map, marking it as located in Morocco.
 Veolia, “Capital Structure at the End of December 2016,” http://www.veolia.com/en/veolia-group/finance/analyst-and-investors/capital-structure.
 Veolia, “Board of Directors,” http://www.veolia.com/en/veolia-group/profile/board-of-directors.
 MobiliCites, “Veolia Withdraws from Transdev in Favor of Caisse des Dépôts,” December 22, 2016,
 French Monetary and Financial Code, Article L518-4, https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichCode.do?idArticle=LEGIARTI000006656696&idSectionTA=LEGISCTA000006193985&cidTexte=LEGITEXT000006072026&dateTexte=20160530.
 Veolia Water Technologies Report, Reverse Osmosis Desalination: Our Global Expertise to Address Water Scarcity, 2016, http://www.veoliawatertechnologies.com/sites/g/files/dvc471/f/assets/documents/2016/10/160268_Desalination_EN_LR_0.pdf.
 Veolia Water Technologies Report, Reverse Osmosis Desalination: Our Global Expertise to Address Water Scarcity, 2016, p. 14, http://www.veoliawatertechnologies.com/sites/g/files/dvc471/f/assets/documents/2016/10/160268_Desalination_EN_LR_0.pdf.